Written by Ashley Shaw
Click here for PDF
1. Do you find yourself excessively concerned or distressed by appearance flaws that friends, family members, or doctors tell you are minor or nonexistent?
2. Do your appearance concerns interfere with your ability to work, take care of things at home, or socialize?
3. Have you undergone multiple cosmetic procedures (but still feel unsatisfied with your appearance)?
4. Do you believe that receiving plastic surgery will transform your life or fix all of your problems?
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
- Castle DJ, Molton M, Hoffman K, Preston NJ, Phillips KA. Correlates of dysmorphic concern in people seeking cosmetic enhancement. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2004;38:439-444.
- Crerand CE, Phillips KA, Menard W, Fay C. Nonpsychiatric medical treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry 2005;46:549-555.
- Ishigooka J, Iwao M, Suzuki M, Fukuyama Y, Murasaki M, Miura S. Demographic features of patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1998;52:283-287.
- Phillips KA, Dufresne RG, Jr., Wilkel CS, Vittorio CC. Rate of body dysmorphic disorder in dermatology patients. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2000;42:436-441.
- Phillips KA, Grant J, Siniscalchi J, Albertini RS. Surgical and nonpsychiatric medical treatment of patients with body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics 2001;42:504-510.
- Phillips KA. The Broken Mirror: Understanding and Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder (revised and expanded edition). New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2005.
- Sarwer DB, Pruzinsky T, Cash TF, Goldwyn RM, Persing JA, Whitaker LA, eds. Psychological Aspects of Resconstructive and Cosmetic Plastic Surgery: Clinical, Empirical, and Ethical Perspectives. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
- Sarwer DB, Wadden TA, Pertschuk MJ, Whitaker LA. Body image dissatisfaction and body dysmorphic disorder in 100 cosmetic surgery patients. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 1998;101:1644-1649.
- Uzun O, Basoglu C, Akar A, Cansever A, Ozsahin A, Cetin M, Ebrinc S. Body dysmorphic disorder in patients with acne. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2003;44:415-419.
- Vargel S, Ulusahin A. Psychopathology and body image in cosmetic surgery patients. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2001;25:474-478.
- Veale D, Boocock A, Gournay K, Dryden W. Body dysmorphic disorder: a survey of fifty cases. The British Journal of Psychiatry 1996;169:196-201.
- Vindigni V, Pavan C, Semenzin M, Grana S, Gambaro F, Marini M, Bassetto F, Mazzoleni F. The importance of recognizing body dysmorphic disorder in cosmetic surgery patients: Do our patients need a preoperative psychiatric evaluation? European Journal of Plastic Surgery 2002;25:305-308.
©2011 Massachusetts General Hospital OCD and Related Disorders Program | Reprint only with permission